For a 13a Visa, which you receive after marriage, you apply with your wife. Most of the application is from the Filipina including a petition for your permanent residency. At first, you receive a one-year temporary residency and ACR card. After one year, you reapply and you receive your permanent residence.
There is also a Retirement Visa or Special Resident Retiree Visa (SRRV). With this, you need to be over the age of 35. Depending on your age group and if you are receiving a pension the requirements vary. With all the variations, you need to invest a sum of money into the county either in a Time Deposit Bank account, a Condo or even a Golf Club Membership. If in a bank, you may remove the interest made over the year but you cannot remove the principle unless you are reinvesting the amount into one of the other approved investments. If you ever cancel one of these investments, you lose your permanent residency.
About the differences, in the U.S. if someone receives their permanent residency through marriage, after two years you need to apply. I guess this is to prove your marriage was for real reasons and not a business deal to get a residency and Green Card. After those two years, if the marriage is dissolved the legal resident keeps their residency.
Here in the Philippines, the Filipino spouse who partitioned their spouse’s residency decides to, they can go to Immigration and withdraw their petition. At this point the Foreigner is back on tourist visa status unless is being deported for some illegal action.
Recently I heard of a man who cheated on his wife, she was so outraged she went to the Immigration office and withdrew her petition. I am not sure of the reason; the husband is currently in a jail cell at Immigration and might be expecting deportation action against him. I need to say, this is something I heard and do not know if the information is correct. Nevertheless, the point is, residency here is granted by the Philippine Government and can be withdrawn if the requirements are not followed.
I try to keep my nose clean and follow the rules, both with the government and my marriage vows and pray I will stay here peacefully.